What is the screw conveyor?

screw conveyor

Screw conveyor systems is a conveying equipment that conveying a material from one end to the other. Through the use of screw conveyor, the load of manual labor can be eliminated.

The conveyor is mainly composed of a rotating screw shaft installed in the groove. With the rotation of the screw shaft, the material is transported to the target point.

Due to the needs of industry, the path of equipment can be set in horizontal, vertical, inclined and other ways. It mainly transports dry bulk materials. Such as fertilizer, feed, grain, etc.

What are the components of screw conveyor systems?

Screw conveyor systems mainly consists of conveying screw, groove, suspension bearing, coupling, electric motor, etc. You also need to know about the main parts of the conveyor:

Conveying screw:

The conveying screw is mainly responsible for pushing the solid through the length of the tank. It is mainly composed of a shaft with a wide blade, which runs spirally around the length.

The conveying screw of the conveyor needs to keep the original distance position. When it rotates, it moves along the length and the material does not move axially.


The trough of conveyor is mainly the parts supporting bulk materials during the operation of conveyor. The whole groove adopts a closed space for materials in operation, which can effectively reduce the pollution to the environment.

The chute provides a channel for feeding and reclaiming bulk materials, which the chute inlet can be directly connected to the equipment to control the volume of materials entering the conveyor. And the equipment that can be directly connected includes belt conveyor, screw feeder, material box, etc.

The appropriate type of chute can be selected according to the demand. For example, U-shaped groove is the most common and widely used one with simple structure;

The rectangular tank can bear corrosive bulk materials when transporting materials and effectively protect the groove;

The tubular tank has a larger capacity and runs faster;

The jacket groove can be heated or cooled during the transportation of materials.


The coupling promotes torque transmission between multiple screw parts by compensating the dislocation between screw shafts. They improve the efficiency of the screw conveyor. When it is necessary to extend the length of screw conveyor, coupling and hanging bearing are key components.

Electric motor

The screw conveyors is powered by a motor located near the trough discharge. This arrangement allows the bulk material to be naturally pulled to the drive end and tension is applied to the screw thread, which  will reduce fatigue and wear of screw conveyor components.

Classification and application of screw conveyor?

The screw conveyor systems can be divided into different paths according to the requirements, such as horizontal screw conveyor, inclined screw conveyor, vertical screw conveyor, etc.

Horizontal screw conveyor:

Horizontal screw conveyors is the most common type of conveyor, which can use multiple inlet feeding and unloading point conveying the materials to the required location in a wide range.

The screw conveyors is equipped with a large loading slot, which can effectively prevent the wear of screw conveyor components.

Incline screw conveyor:

The inclined screw conveyors is mainly used to conveying materials in an inclined route. In this way, no additional equipment is required to send materials to the high point for conveying.

The slope of inclined screw conveyor is within 45 °. The greater the slope, the lower the working efficiency of the screw conveyor.

The negative effect of inclination is compensated by using a conveying screw with reduced pitch, because it provides a better conveying surface and reduces material drop. And the use of tubular material is also reduced.

Vertical screw conveyor:

The vertical screw conveyor systems conveying bulk materials on vertical paths and very steep slopes, which with an inclination angle of 45 degrees higher than the horizontal plane. They are also space and cost-effective in transporting bulk materials.

Controlling the amount of bulk material fed into the screw conveyors is very important for the vertical screw conveyors to maintain a constant speed, reduce wear and power consumption and improve conveying efficiency.

Therefore, a large number of metering devices, such as screw feeders, are required.

Other precautions?

Select hard and wear-resistant metal materials to satisfy the screw conveyor, such as carbon steel, hardened steel, etc;

For viscous, hygroscopic and viscous materials, belt screw conveyor or shaftless screw conveyors must be used to prevent material accumulation.

When stirred or inflated, the fluidizing material often “overflows” and flows uncontrollably. The easiest way to avoid this is to reduce the belt speed. Shorter pitch conveying screws can also be used to slow down these materials.

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